In-Text Citations: APA style
APA in-text style uses the author-year method of citation. The first citation of any work must include the author, year and, if a specific page needs to be identified, the page number of the work unless it is mentioned in the text containing the citation. Subsequent citations to the same work need not include the year as long as the work can easily be distinguished from other works cited in the paper.
Work by a single author
Several rivers aside from the Thames once intersected London, although those rivers have since been covered over by development (Clayton, 2000, p. 28).
Work by a single author named in the text
Antony Clayton points out that several rivers aside from the Thames once intersected London, although those rivers have since been covered over by development (2000, p. 28).
Work by two authors
The unemployed of Denmark have had the right to request job related activities such as training or publicly supported work, but that right has recently become an obligation (Rosdahl & Weise, 2001, p. 160).
Work by three or more authors
Works listed by title/works with no author
Critics have recently taken exception to the decision by the Joliet City Council to allow a new minor-league baseball stadium to be named after a local hospital ("This stadium available," 2002).
Note: include the page number unless the work cited is a very short one, such as a newspaper article or encyclopedia entry.
Works by corporate authors
Between 1970 and 1994, expenditures on information processing equipment rose at an inflation-adjusted average annual rate of 9.7 percent (National Research Council, 1999, p. 25).
Two or more works by the same author
All of Christian mysticism grew out of St. Augustine's discussions of the eros theme (Singer, 1984, p. 170).
Electronic and Multimedia Sources
Because of Greece's physical characteristics-its jagged coast made almost all settlements within 40 miles of the sea-the ancient Greeks relied on the sea for most long-distance traveling (Martin, 2002, sec. 2.4).
Most of Plato's ideas about love are recorded in the Symposium (Singer, 1948 vol.1, p. 48), while Ficino's are mainly to be found in the Commentary on Plato's Symposium (Singer, 1948, vol. 2, p. 168).
John Evelyn described London's churchyards as being filled with bodies "one above the other, to the very top of the walls, and some above the walls" (qtd. in Clayton 14).
Classic Literary and Religious Works
Wittgenstein writes, "the philosopher's treatment of a question is like the treatment of an illness" (Wittgenstein, 1953, sec. 255).
When citing plays, poems or the bible, omit page numbers and cite by division (act, scene, canto, book, part, etc.) and line.
Queen Gertrude is concerned about Hamlet's great distress over his father's death, saying "Do not for ever with thy vailed lids / seeks for they noble father in the dust: / thou know'st 'tis common; all that lives must die..." (Shakespeare, trans. 1992, 1.2.70-72).
Personal Communications (Letters, memos, e-mail, etc.)
(N. Okrent, personal communication, February 29, 2002)
Note: personal communications are documented only in the text; they are not included in the bibliography.
works cited in the above examples:
Clayton, A. (2000). Subterranean city: Beneath the streets of London (A. Bell, Trans.). Cambridge: Blackwell. (Original work published 1992).
Martin, T. R. (n.d.). An overview of classical Greek history from Homer to Alexander. In The Perseus digital library. Retrieved January 9, 2009, from http:// www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0009 &query=section%3D%234&layout=&loc=2.3.
National Research Council. (1999). Funding a revolution: Government support for computing research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Rosdahl, A. & Weise, H. (2001). When all must be active-workfare in Denmark. In I. Lodemel & H. Trickey (Eds.), An offer you can't refuse: Workfare in international perspective (pp. 1-40). Bristol: The Policy Press.
Shakespeare, W. (1992). The tragedy of Hamlet, prince of Denmark (B.A. Mowat & P. Werstine, Eds.). New York: Washington Square-Pocket.
Singer, I. (1984). The nature of love. 3 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Singer, I. (1994). The pursuit of love. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
This stadium available. (2002, January 5). Chicago Tribune, p.10.
Wittgenstein, L. (1953). Philosophical investigations. (G.E.M. Anscombe, Trans). New York: Macmillan.