Examples of Paraphrase
Of course, direct quotations require quotation marks and citations, but even paraphrasesrewordings of textneed to be cited. Paraphrasing without providing a citation is plagiarism. Even paraphrases with citations can be instances of plagiarism if they are so similar to the original that the paraphraser claims credit for the original author's language.
A paraphrase that avoids plagiarism:
Following are two examples of paraphrases, one that is plagiarism and one that is not. The original is taken from Maguelone Toussaint-Samat's A History of Food (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1992. 263).
This paraphrase fails for two reasons:
1. By having no citation, the paraphrase misleads readers into believing that the ideas, facts and sense of the passage are a result of the author's own research and knowledge.
2. The language of the paraphrase is too similar to the original. Even if the author had provided a citation, some instructors would consider this plagiarism.
This paraphrase cites the original and rephrases its words to create an original construction.
Example of a paraphrase with a citation that is still plagiarism
The original is by Thomas Childers (Wings of morning: the story of the last American bomber shot down over Germany in World War II, Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. 1990. 83.) The use of the original is by Stephen E. Ambrose (The wild blue: the men and boys who flew the B-24s over Germany. New York: Simon & Schuster, c2001.164.)
Ambrose cites but does not quote Childers' original work, and therefore he claims responsibility for the beautiful prose. Because the prose and imagery is Childers,' Ambrose is plagiarizing. Ambrose should have either used Childers' passage as a direct quotation or modified his own passage so that it consisted of his own language.