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Biblical and Related Literature - Research Guide

The following bibliography lists library resources of use to students pursuing studies in Biblical literature written in Greek; this covers the New Testament, the Septuagint, and their related literatures, often referred to as "Old Testament Pseudepigrapha," "Apocrypha," "New Testament Apocrypha," or "Christian Apocrypha." See Jeffrey Tigay's Guide to Biblical Research for step-by-step instructions, with bibliography, for doing Hebrew Bible research.
For assistance in using these and the many other reference works available for Religious Studies, please consult a reference librarian.


Library Catalogs 
Penn's online catalog, lists over 95% of the materials owned by the Penn Library. See the Franklin Search Help for general searching tips.
Main Card Catalog.
The Main Catalog in Van Pelt Library is now closed. Manuscripts and rare books, some pre-1968 journals as well as materials in non-Roman alphabets are only partially included in Franklin. Use of the Main Card Catalog as well as other specialized catalogs may still be necessary for these items.
A large, 30+ million union catalog thatincludes the holdings of many university, college, and public libraries. Essential for compiling a comprehensive bibliography. Several Philadelphia-area libraries are included in WorldCat.Use this catalog to identify materials that Penn does not own and request them through Interlibrary Loan.

Biblical Texts and Editions 
This is only a brief list. For a more comprehensive list containing additional editions and ancient versions, see the list from Yale Divinity School.


The Greek New Testament. edited by Kurt Aland ... [et al.] in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Mhunster/Westphalia. New York : United Bible Societies, c1975. 3rd ed.
Location: [Van Pelt Library BS1965 1975]
Novum testamentum Graece. post Eberhard et Erwin Nestle; communiter ediderunt Barbara et Kurt Aland ... [et al.]; apparatum criticum novis curis elaboraverunt Barbara et Kurt Aland una cum Instituto Studiorum Textus Novi Testamenti Monasterii Westphaliae. 27. rev. Aufl. [Stuttgart]: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993.
Location: [Van Pelt Library BS1965 1998]; [Rare Bk & Ms Library Reference BS1965 1998]
The Greek New Testament : UBS4 with NRSV & NIV. Editor, John R. Kohlenberger III; foreword by Bruce M. Metzger. Grand Rapids, Mich. : ZondervanPublishingHouse, 1993.
Location: [Van Pelt Library BS1965.5 1993]
The Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint. Edited by Henry Barclay Swete. Cambridge, Eng. : University Press, 1891-1905. 3v.
Location: [Van Pelt Library 219.34 Sw46a]; [Judaica/Ancient Near East Seminar (Rm. 401): 219.34 Sw46]; [Center for Judaic Studies, 4th & Walnut Sts. BS741 .S94 1887]
The Old Testament in Greek, according to the text of Codex Vaticanus, supplemented from other Uncial Manuscripts, with a critical apparatus containing the variants of the chief ancient authorities for the text of the Septuagint. Edited by Alan England Brooke, Norman McLean and Henry St. John Thackeray. Cambridge : University Press, 1906-1940. 3v.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Religious/Medieval Studies (Rm. 303): 219.34 B794]
Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum. auctoritate Academiae Litterarum Gottingensis editum. Gvttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1931- .
Various vols are published.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Religious/Medieval Studies (Rm. 303): BS741 .A45 1931]


Pre-Vulgate Bible versions of the Latin Church Fathers. Because there are a limited number of extant manuscripts that haphazardly cover the biblical text, the basic sources are biblical citations or allusions that are found within the writings of the Latin Fathers or Greek patristic authors who were translated at an early date into Latin. This database contains every citation, listed by book, chapter and verse of the Bible. The citations can be searched individually or as a whole, following the biblical structure.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Religious/Medieval Studies (Rm. 303): BS73 1949]
Biblia sacra: iuxta Vulgatam versionem. Adiuvantibus Bonifatio Fischer ... [et al.]; recensuit et brevi apparatu instruxit Robertus Weber. Ed. 3. emendata. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1975, c1969. 2 v.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks BS75 1975]; [Van Pelt Library Religious/Medieval Studies (Rm. 303)]
Biblia latina cum glossa ordinaria : facsimile reprint of editio princeps Adolph Rusch of Strassburg 1480/81 / introduction by Karlfries Froehlich and Margaret T. Gibson. Turnhout [Belgium] : Brepols, c1992.
The standard medieval commentary on the Bible.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Medieval Studies (Rm. 405, non-circulating) BS75 1992]


Contains twenty versions of the Bible. In addition to the twelve complete Bibles, there are five New Testament works, two Gospel works and William Tyndale's New Testament, Pentateuch and Jonah translations.

Bibles in Modern Translation 
Locating Bibles can sometimes be challenging. Follow these instructions for easier access:
  • In Franklin, do a title search that also includes the appropriate language, e.g.: bible french or bible german.
  • Browse the Van Pelt stacks between BS1-BS400. There are also older editions of Bibles in various languages at the corresponding Dewey Decimal 214 section.
  • For Bibles in English, try using keyword searching in Franklin, e.g.: tkey bible and tkey english and "revised standard" or tkey bible and tkey english and "king james". Although these searches are not comprehensive, they should get you started in the right direction.
  • For online searching access, try the following free web sites:
    • The Unbound Bible - Biola University
      A collection of searchable Bibles consisting of 7 English versions, Greek and Hebrew Versions (including the Septuagint/LXX text extracted from the morphologically analyzed text of CATSS LXX, prepared by CATSS under the direction of R. Kraft), Latin Vulgate and other ancient versions, and 15 other languages. A terrific resource, especially for the ancient languages.

    • The Bible Gateway searches the King James, Weymouth New Testament, etc and also provides searching in an amazing array of languages uncluding: German, Swedish, Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Tagalog, Norwegian.

Collections of Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and Other Related Literatures 
The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English: with Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books. Ed. R.H. Charles. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.
Online version for the Apocrypha: Old Testament Apocrypha
Online version for the Pseudepigrapha: Old Testament Pseudepigrapha
Location: Van Pelt Library: BS1692 1913]; check Franklin for several other locations
The Old Testament pseudepigrapha and the New Testament: prolegomena for the study of Christian origins. Ed. J.H. Charlesworth. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Location: [Van Pelt Judaica/Ancient Near East Seminar (Rm. 401); [Van Pelt Library Religious/Medieval Studies (Rm. 303): BS1830 .A3 1983]; check Franklin for several other locations
The Dead Sea scrolls study edition. Edited by Florentino Garcia Martinez and Eibert J.C. Tigchelaar. Leiden ; New York : Brill, 1997-1998. 2v.
From the Preface: "This book offers a fresh transcription and an English translation of all the relevant non-biblical texts found at Qumran, arranged by serial number from Cave 1 to Cave 11."
Several other good collections of Dead Sea scrolls material are available in English translation. For critical editions, see the series Discoveries in the Judaean Desert.
Location: [Van Pelt Library BM487.A3 G37 1997]
New Testament apocrypha. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher ; English translation edited by R. McL. Wilson. Cambridge, England : James Clarke & Co. ; Louisville, Ky. : Westminster/John Knox Press, 1991. 2v.
Includes introductory essays and bibliographies with each text.
Location: [Van Pelt Library BS2832 .S3 1991; [also in RELS/Medieval Studies Seminar Room]
The Apocryphal New Testament a collection of apocryphal Christian literature in an English translation . Translated by J.K. Elliott. Oxford : Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press, c1994.
Rev. and newly translated ed. of: Apocryphal New Testament, translated by Montague Rhodes James. 1924, sections of which are on the web: Acts(Link :, Apocalypse (Link :, and Gospels (Link :
Location: [Van Pelt Library BS2832 .A2 1993]
The Nag Hammadi library in English. James M. Robinson, general editor. 4th rev. ed. Leiden ; New York : E.J. Brill, 1996.
See the Gnostic Society Library for online version
(Link :
Location: [Van Pelt Library BT1391 .A3 1996]

Language Dictionaries 
The DLD project currently make available three major Latin dictionaries: Blaise - Patristic (Dictionnaire latin-frangais des auteurs chritiens, 1954, 1967, 2005); Firmini Verris Dictionarius (Dictionnaire midiival latin-frangais, 1440); Du Cange (Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis, ed. 1883-1887)
Brown, Francis, S. R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. (BDB) Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1906.
Several reprint editions also available.
Location: [Van Pelt Judaica/Ancient Near East Seminar PJ4833 .G4 1953; also in Van Pelt Library Reference; Center for Advanced Judaic Studies]
Arndt, William, Frederick W Danker, and Walter Bauer. A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature. 3rd ed. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, c2000.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks PA881 .B38 2000; also a Center for Advanced Judaic Studies]
Lust, J. A Greek-English lexicon of the Septuagint. Stuttgart : Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1992-1996. 2v.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Religious/Medieval Studies PA781 .L8 1992]

Text Criticism 
Presents introductory information on New Testament text criticism.
Well organized list of manuscripts.
Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism - Conceived by Rich Elliott of Simon Greenleaf University.
"Attempts to cover all aspects of New Testament Textual Criticism in an orderly and fair fashion."
A Synoptic Gospels Primer by Mahlon H. Smith.
An electronic gateway for English speakers into the history of literary analysis of gospels that were originally composed in Greek.

Vernet, André. La Bible au moyen âge : bibliographie. Paris: Editions du CNRS, 1989.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Z5579 .V4 1989]
Hurd, John Coolidge. A bibliography of New Testament bibliographies. New York: Seabury Press, 1966.
Lists bibliographies appearing in both books and periodicals. Does not list bibliographies of editions of the New Testament. A few annotations. Arranged by subject; no Author Index.
Location: [Van Pelt Reference Stacks Z 7772.L1 H8]
Internationale Zeitschriftenschau f|r Bibelwissenschaft und Grenzgebiete. Dusseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1951-. Annual.
A review of a year's worth in Biblical studies. Indexes over 300 journals from around the world. Gives brief summaries of the articles often in German. Classified arrangement with Author Index.
Location: [Judaica & Ancient Near East BS 410 I583]
Brief bibliography with a focus on women.
Langevin, Paul Emile. Bibliographie Biblique, 1930-1975. Quebec: Presses de l'Universite Laval, 1972- . 3v.
A bibliography of Biblical studies from Roman Catholic periodicals and books. Author Index and Subject Index.
Location: [Van Pelt Reference Stacks BS 410 L35]; [also Van Pelt]
The title of this bibliography is slightly misleading. The bibliography does not only cover the Christian Bible, but the Hebrew Bible as well.

Covers all religious traditions; strongest coverage is for materials dealing with the Judeo-Christian tradition, including Biblical Studies.
Elenchus of Biblica. Robert North S.J. Roma: Pontificio Instituto Biblico, 1985- . Annual.
Continues Elenchus Bibliographicus Biblicus. An extensive, international bibliography which has a classed arrangement with an Author Index. Earlier volumes have a detailed Subject Index. Includes book reviews. Several years time lag.
Location: [ReligiousMedieval Studies Seminar Room Z7770 E444]
New Testament Abstracts. v.1- , Fall 1956- . Cambridge, MA: Weston School of Theology, 1956- . Three times a year.
English abstracts from Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish periodicals in many languages. Scripture Index.
Location: [Latest 5 years in Van Pelt Reference Stacks BS410 N35]
Old Testament Abstracts. v.1- , Feb. 1978- . Washington: Catholic Biblical Association of America. Three times a year.
Offers the same format as New Testament Abstracts. Book reviews, abstracts of periodical articles in each issue. Annual Author, Scripture, and Hebrew word Index.
Location: [Judaica & Ancient Near East BS410 O42]

Dictionaries & Encyclopedias 
Anchor Bible Dictionary. Editor in chief, David Noel Freedman. New York : Doubleday, c1992. 6 vol.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks BS440 .A54 1992]; [Judaica/Ancient Near East Seminar (Rm. 401)]
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem, Encyclopaedia Judaica. New York: Macmillan, 1972. 16v.
About 25,000 articles discussing issues relating to world Jewry. Most articles are signed with bibliographies. Use of the Index [vol. 1] is necessary.
The 1901-1906 edition of the Jewish Encyclopedia is online (Link:
Location: [Van Pelt Reference DS 102.8 E52; [Judaica & Ancient Near East Seminar DS 102.8 E53]
The Interpreter's dictionary of the Bible: an illustrated encyclopedia. Ed. by George Arthur Buttrick et al. New York: Abingdon Press, 1962. 4v.
A good, scholarly tool for biblical study. Designed for all types of users. Articles include bibliographies and are signed.
Location: [Van Pelt Reference Stacks BS 440 I63]
The new interpreter's dictionary of the Bible. Ed. by Keith Crim et al. Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1976.
Updates articles from the 1962 edition. Provides cross-references to earlier volumes.
Location: [Van Pelt Reference BS 440 I63 Suppl; [also Van Pelt]
Kittel, Gerhard. Theological dictionary of the New Testament. Ed. and trans. by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdman, 1964- . 8v.
Translated from Theologisches Worterbuch zum Neuem Testament.
Treats every word of religious or theological significance in the New Testament. Arranged alphabetically by the Greek word.
Location: [Religious/Medieval Studies Seminar PA 881 K513]
Theological dictionary of the Old Testament. Ed. by G. Johannes Botterweck and Helmer Ringgren. Trans. by David E. Green. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdman, 1990- .
A translation of the Theologisches Worterbuch zum Alten Testament.
Arranged alphabetically by Hebrew term, this work presents "the fundamental concepts intended by the respective words and terms" (Introduction).
Location: [Judaica & Ancient Near East BS 440 B5713 1990]

Brownrigg, Ronald. Who's who in the New Testament. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks BS2430 .B67 1971b]
Comay, Joan. Who's who in the New Testament, together with the Apocrypha. New York : Oxford University Press, 1993.
Location: [Center for Advanced Judaic Studies, 4th & Walnut Sts.: BS570 .C64 1993]
Comay, Joan. Who's who in the Old Testament, together with the Apocrypha. New York : Oxford University Press, 1993.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks: BS570 .C64 1993]
Women in scripture : a dictionary of named and unnamed women in the Hebrew Bible, the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical books, and the New Testament. Edited by Carol Meyers, Toni Craven, and Ross S. Kraemer. Boston : Houghton Mifflin, 2000.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks BS575 .W593 2000]; [also at CAJS].

The Macmillan Bible atlas. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan Co., 1993.
264 maps. From the Preface: aims "to show, as far as possible through maps of each event, the changes and historical processes in the lands of the Bible."
Location: [Van Pelt Reference Stacks G2230 A2 1993; [also Judaica & Ancient Near East]
Grollenberg, Luc Hendricus. Atlas of the Bible. Trans. and ed. by Joyce M.H. Reid and H.H. Rowley. London: Nelson, 1957.
Clear maps; many illustrations. The text is a summary of the history of Israel up to the time of Jesus. Biblical references are given throughout the text. Index of places and names.
Location: [Judaica & Ancient Near East BS620 G752 1957]
Oxford Bible atlas. Ed. by Herbert G. May with the assistance of G.N.S. Hunt. 3d ed. rev. by John Day. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
This edition was revised to include new biblical research and recent archeological information. Gazetteer acts as a place index.
Location: [Van Pelt Reference Stacks BS630 O96 1984]
T|binger Bibelatlas : auf der Grundlage des T|binger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (TAVO). Edited by Siegfried Mittmann & Gvtz Schmitt. Stuttgart : Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2001.
Other title: T|bingen Bible atlas : based on the T|bingen atlas of the Near and Middle East.
Covers from ca.1500 BCE - 350 CE.
Location: [Van Pelt Library Reference Oversize G2230 .T83 2001]

Web Portals 
Primary focus is on early Christian writings, but in the broadest sense.
Well done web site.
New Testament Gateway - Mark Goodacre.
Another excellent web site with links to all aspects of New Testament studies.

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